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Irving Mills

album cover: Irving Mills and His Hotsy Totsy Gang, Volume One
Irving Mills and His Hotsy Totsy Gang

Vol. 1
Vol. 2

Vol. 1

Vol. 2

Basic Information

Born: January 16, 1894, New York City

Died: April 21, 1985 (age 91) Palm Springs, California (US)

Primary songwriting role: lyricist; also author, band leader, music publisher, music management firm executive and owner

Co-writers: Duke Ellington. For songs written with Ellington and 54 other co-writers, view the DBOPM database.

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Basic Songwiter Information
Overview and Commentary
Music-Video Cabinet
Songs by This Songwriter
in the Cafe Songbook Catalog
of The Great American Songbook
Web Research Resources
Print Research Resources
Visitor Comments
Master List of Songwriters

Overview and Commentary
Irving Mills
(This section is currently in preparation)

Irving Mills and Duke Ellington

sheet music cover: "Sophisticated Lady"
"Sophisticated Lady"
music Duke Ellington, words Mitchell Parish and Irving Mills,
sheet music, 1933




book cover: Duke Ellington by James Lincoln Collier
James Lincoln Collier,
Duke Ellington
New York: Oxford University Press




book cover: John Edward Hasse "Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington"

John Edward Hasse
Beyond Category: The Life And Genius Of Duke Ellington
Foreward by Wynton Marsalis
New York: Simon and Schuster




book cover: "Reminiscing in Tempo A Portrait of Duke Ellington by Stuart Nicholson

Stuart Nicholson
Reminiscing In Tempo: A Portrait of Duke Ellington
Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press




sheet music cover: "Solitude""Solitude"

music Duke Ellington, words Eddie Delange and Irving Mills,
sheet music (1934)




sheet music cover: "When My Sugar Walks Dow the Street"
"When My Sugar Walks Down The Street"
music Jimmy McHugh, words Gene Austin and Irving Mills,
sheet music (1925?)

That Irving Mills was primarily a manager of entertainers (mostly jazz and blues musicians and singers who were often Black), an impresario and a music publisher, can make one ask why he has this web page devoted to him, a page reserved for a songwriter. The simple answer is that he receives songwriter credit, usually as lyricist, for nine of the American standard songs currently included in the Cafe Songbook Catalog of The Great American Songbook(See above.) -- not to mention many others. The simple answer, however, leaves out the most important and most interesting parts of his story.

Mills, born in 1894, grew up in the immigrant ghetto of the lower east side of New York City. His exposure to popular music started early when he worked as a page in a theater district restaurant with "a fine orchestra" and soon after landed a job at the Friar's Club where he met some of the biggest names in show business such as George M. Cohan. From there he got hired into a vaudeville theater in the neighborhood of Tin Pan Alley where all the music publishers resided. His singing ability got recognized and landed him a job as a song plugger promoting the songs of a music publishing house.

Mills quickly gained a reputation for being smart and ambitious as well as aggressive in the pursuit oh his ambitions. After he and his family moved to Philadelphia when he was nineteen, Irving and his older brother Jack started their own music publishing business, Mills Music. As Irving's son Bob tells it, by the time they sold Mills Music, Inc. in 1965, the business they had built had become "the largest independent music publisher in the world" (See Bob Mills' web biography of his father).

But even such an accomplishment as this was not in itself the reason Irving Mills has a "songwriter page" on Cafe Songbook. That has much more to do with the manager/impresario/recording business side of Mills' musical life. After Mills had begun to acquire songs to publish and to sign up talent to perform and record those songs, a chance discovery he made while making the rounds of the city's music clubs wound up leading to one of the most important figures in twentieth century jazz getting put on the map. Irving's son Bob Mills tells the story:

One night [c. 1925] he went down to a little club on West 49th Street between 7th Avenue and Broadway called the Kentucky Club. The owner had brought in a little band from Washington, D.C. and wanted to know what Irving thought of them. Instead of going out and making the rounds he found himself sitting there all night listening to the orchestra. That was Duke Ellington and his Kentucky Club Orchestra who he signed up the very next day.

James Lincoln Collier in his biography of Ellington states, "In general Irving Mills has been treated badly by history." The rap on Mills has often been that he "rode to riches" on Ellington's career, that he put his own name on many of the songs giving himself creative credit for lyrics and/or music, and thus receiving a share of the royalties over and above the publsher's share. The conventional wisdom became that many years later when Ellington broke off the relationship, Mills got what he deserved. Collier and other Mills biographers don't see it exactly that way. Collier writes,

Mills earned a lot of money with Ellington, some of it unfairly. But there is a good deal more to it than that, for Irving Mills made Ellington famous, and Duke recognized this. For one thing, in 1925 Irving Mills was already a successful music publisher, on the road to big money with or without Duke Ellington. For another, at that time Duke recognized that he was a green horn, that he could learn a lot from Irving Mills, and that he needed a white manager to run interference for him through the jagged, broken field of show business. . . .

On the other side, Mills, no matter how much he cheated Duke, especially by putting his own name on Ellington's songs, understood and respected him. . . . However Mills may have manipulated Ellington, he was essential to his success. Without Irving Mills, or someone like him, the Ellington music would almost certainly have been much different, and perhaps not come into existence at all. Mills was a music publisher and knew that the big money would come from songs. As a consequence, he continually urged Duke to write, got the songs recorded, and pushed them hard (Collier, pp. 67-68, hardcover Ed.).

John Edward Hasse in his biography of The Duke, puts it this way:

The brash, shrewd Mills was scouting talent for his music publishing company and recording ventures when he heard Ellington one night at the Club Kentucky. He offered The Washingtonians [as Ellington's band was called because he had come to New York from Washington D.C.] a chance to record on Vocalion, a subsidiary of the big Brunswick record company. They jumped at the opportunity to get their music for the first time on a major record label. "This was," said Ellington, with an evident mixture of gratitude, irony, and his characteristic public generosity, "really the beginning of a long and wonderful association" (Hasse, p. 89, hardcover Ed.).

Stuart Nicholson who tells Ellington's story through the recollections of others provides the following quotation:

Cab Calloway [another of Mills's finds and clients]: "[Irving Mills] broke down so many darned barriers for Negro musicians you couldn't count them . . . white clubs that had never had a black band before and some of them were reluctant to let one in. But Irving Mills pounded their doors and paved the way" (Nicholson, p. 150, hardcover Ed.).

Mills provided very well for the black musicians in his hire, especially when they traveled in the south, where as Mills put it to one of the booking agents in Texas, "Look, I want to be assured of protection," being afraid of the reaction of local whites. Ellington's band, thanks to Mills had all any white band had and more. Here's how Sonny Greer, Ellington's drummer described their protected accomodations:

They never seen nobody like us. Down South, you know, confliction, segregation. They had heard different coloured aggregations that come through on a little ragged-ass bus or something like that, but we had our own Pullman car, had our own baggage car, we had full possession of the diner, nobody could come in our Pullman car because the door stayed locked. . . . We had our own lighting equipment, own stage, one of the first bands to use a roll-down stage, one of the first bands with all them overhead pinpoint lights, [our own] electrician. They never seen that. That's the way Irving Mills made us travel (Nicholson, pp. 162-163).

Bob Mills account of his father's role in writing lyrics for Ellington songs is perhaps not the most objective but may reflect Mills' contributed, (and he did provide creative input) came about:

Ellington and Mills collaborated on quite a number of tunes that became popular standards: "Mood Indigo," "Solitude," "It Don't Mean A Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)," "Sophisticated Lady," "Black and Tan Fantasy," and many others that you'll find listed on ASCAP's website. In spite of a limited vocabulary Irving had a poetic sense of beauty and knew how to create a lyric, sometimes using a ghost writer to complete his idea, and sometimes building on the idea of the ghost writer.

RedHotJazz.com summarizes the relationship betwee Mills and Ellington thusly:

[Mills] association with Duke ran deep; besides being their manager he wrote lyrics to several of Ellington's songs and sang on many of their records. Duke and other members of his orchestra had mixed emotions about their business relations with Irving Mills. In general they held him in high regard, but felt that as publisher he sometimes took author's credit and royalties that were not deserved. On the other hand nearly all agreed that much of Ellington's early commercial success was because of Mills business skills. It should be noted that the addition of publishers' names to songs was common practice in those days and the same accusations were leveled at most publishers of the era.

So this, as murky as the "this" may be, is how Irving Mills, music publisher, impresario, and manager of some of the great figures of jazz and blues, came to have his own songwriter page at Cafe Songbook.

book cover: John Edward Hasse "Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington"
John Edward Hasse
Beyond Category: The Life And Genius Of Duke Ellington
Foreward by
Wynton Marsalis,
New York:
Simon and Schuster

During the first half of the twentieth century the world of American entertainment thrived despite the barriers placed before it by racial and ethnic prejudice. Two of the groups who were major players, African-Americans and Jews both had to contend with these forces. Racism and ethnic bias, of course, were a factor in every aspect of American society, but in the world of entertainment, the performers and their fellow practitioners in the industry such as songwriters, producers and so forth, were often idolized in public but rejected in more private settings. All this made life in the world of show business a complex affair.

In the view of Ellington biographer John Edward Hasse, Jews and Blacks experienced a kind of teamwork as they came face to face with discrimination:

At that time, Jews and blacks were on the outskirts of American society. Yet they both used music and entertainment to circumvent certain barriers and find a more visible place in the mainstream of American culture. Blacks such as Bert Williams, Eubie Blake, Florence Mills, and Duke Ellington seized opportunities to take center stage. While a number of Jews -- Al Jolson, Fanny Brice, Eddie Cantor , Sophie Tucker -- also took center stage, others -- Harry and Albert Von Tilzer, Irving Berlin, George Gershwin, Billy Rose --wrote songs for that stage. Some -- Leo Feist, Ted Snyder, the Witmarks, Shapiro and Bernstein -- published their songs. And still others -- like Irving Mills, Florenz Ziegfeld, Joe Glaser, the Shuberts -- found the talent for that stage. One of the richest sources for the the talent and the songs was African-Americans who saw new opportunities opening through these new ethnic entrepreneurs. The two groups, blacks and Jews, formed a symbiotic relationship (Hasse, p. 89).

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Cafe Songbook
Music-Video Cabinet:
Irving Mills
(This section is currently in preparation)

"In this promo film from 1931 New York music publisher, impressario, record mogul, booking agent and sometimes singer/violinist, Irving Mills introduces the three main attractions of his agency, Baron Lee and the Blue Rhythm Band, Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway" (from ).

Mills sang on occasion with an early Ellington ensemble, The Harlem Hot Chocolates.

"The St. James Infirmary Blues," with Irving Mills on vocal backed by his client Duke Ellington and the Harlem Hot Chocolates, c. 1930. the lyrics for this classic American blues are sometimes credited to Joe Primrose, a pseudonym used by Mills.

Irving Mills' Hotsy Totsy Gang
"The Hotsy-Totsy Gang records made under Irving Mills name between 1928 and 1930 assembled some of the greatest White Jazz musicians of the era and often produced spectacular results. Sometimes Mills sang on the records, other times he just arranged the record dates and selected the musicians. As a singer Mills was not without talent' (redhotjazz.com).

"My Lit'l Honey And Me" (1929)

Irving Mills and his Hotsy Totsy Gang - -- "Although not a musician himself (however, he did sing), Irving decided to put together his own studio recording group. In Irving Mills and his Hotsy Totsy Gang he had for sidemen: Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Joe Venuti, Eddie Lang, Arnold Brillhardt, Arthur Schutt, and Manny Klein. Other variations of his bands featured Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, and Red Nichols (Irving gave Red Nichols the tag 'and his Five Pennies'." (from )
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Irving Mills Songs
currently included in the
Cafe Songbook Catalog of
The Great American Songbook
  1. Azure
  2. I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart
  3. In a Sentimental Mood
  4. It Don't Mean a Thing
  5. Mood Indigo
  6. Prelude to a Kiss
  7. Solitude
  8. Sophisticated Lady
  9. When My Sugar Walks down the Street
Click here for a database of songs for which Irving Mills recieves writing credit.
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sheet music cover for "I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart"
"I Let a Song go out of my Heart"
sheet music, 1938,
music Duke Ellington,
words Irving Mills, Henry Nemo,
and John Redmond --
Benny Goodman
on cover


sheet music cover: "In a Sentimental Mood"
"In A Sentimental Mood"
(sheet music, 1936,
music Duke Ellington,
words Manny Kurtz and
Irving Mills
Benny Goodman on cover)

Research Resources:
Irving Mills

Irving Mills research resources on the web (listed alphabetically by web source):
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Irving Mills research resources in print (listed chronologically):

Books on the subject of Duke Ellington inevitably contain significant information about Irving Mills:

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(Irving Mills page)


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Cafe Songbook
Master List
of Great American Songbook Songwriters

Names of songwriters who have written at least one song included in the Cafe Songbook Catalog of The Great American Songbook are listed below.


Names of songwriters with two or more song credits in the catalog (with rare exceptions) are linked to their own Cafe Songbook pages, e.g. Fields, Dorothy.


Names of songwriters with only one song credit in the catalog are linked to the Cafe Songbook page for that song, on which may be found information about the songwriter or a link to an information source for him or her.


Please note: Cafe Songbook pages for songwriters are currently in various stages of development.

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Adair, Tom

Adams, Lee

Adams, Stanley

Adamson, Harold

Ager, Milton

Ahbez, Eden

Ahlert, Fred

Akst, Harry

Alexander, Van

Allen, Lewis

Allen, Steve

Alter, Louis

Altman, Arthur

Anderson, Maxwell

Andre, Fabian

Arlen, Harold
Arnheim, Gus

Arodin, Sid

Atwood, Hub

Astaire, Fred

Austin, Gene

Ayer, Nat D.

Barbour, Dave

Barnes, Billy

Barris, Harry

Bassman, George

Belle, Barbara

Bennett, Dave

Bergman, Alan and Marilyn

Berlin, Irving

Bernie, Ben

Bernstein, Leonard

Best, William "Pat"

Blackburn, John

Blackwell, Otis (a.k.a. John Davenport)

Blake, Eubie

Blane, Ralph

Blitzstein, Marc

Bloom, Rube

Bock, Jerry

Block, Martin

Boland, Clay

Borne, Hal

Borodin, Alexander

Bowman, Brooks

Boyd, Elisse

Brent, Earl K.

Bricusse, Leslie

Brooks, Harry

Brooks, Shelton

Brown, Les

Brown, Lew

Brown, Nacio Herb

Brown, Seymour

Burke, Joe

Burke, Johnny

Burke, Sonny

Burnett, Ernie

Burns, Ralph

Burwell, Cliff

Bushkin, Joe


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Caesar, Irving

Cahn, Sammy

Caldwell, Anne

Campbell, Jimmy

Carey, Bill (William D.)

Carmichael, Hoagy

Carroll, Harry

Carter, Benny

Casey, Kenneth

Casucci, Leonello

Chaplin, Charlie

Chaplin, Saul

Charlap, Moose

Clare, Sidney

Chase, Newell

Churchill, Frank

Clarke, Grant

Clifford, Gordon

Clinton, Larry

Coates, Carroll

Coleman, Cy

Comden, Betty and Adolph Green

Conley, Larry

Connelly, Reginald

Conrad, Con

Cooley, Eddie

Coots, J. Fred

Cory, George

Coslow, Sam

Creamer, Henry

Crosby, Bing

Cross, Douglas

Daniels, Charles N.
Davenport, John (See Otis Blackwell.)

David, Mack

Davis, Benny

Davis, Jimmy

Dee, Sylvia

De Lange, Eddie

Denniker, Paul

Dennis, Matt

De Paul, Gene

De Rose, Peter

De Sylva, B.G. (Buddy)

DeVries, John

Dietz, Howard

Distel, Sacha

Dixon, Mort

Donaldson, Walter

Dorsey, Jimmy

Dougherty, Doc

Drake, Ervin
Drake, Milton

Dreyer, Dave

Dubin, Al

Duke, Vernon

Edens, Roger

Edwards, Michael

Egan, Raymond B.

Eliscu, Edward

Ellington, Duke

Elman, Ziggy

Engvick, William

Evans, Ray

Evans, Redd

Eyton, Frank


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Fain, Sammy

Fetter, Ted

Fields, Dorothy

Fischer, Carl

Fisher, Dan

Fisher, Fred

Fisher, Mark

Fisher, Marvin

Forrest, George

Freed, Arthur

Freed, Ralph

L. E. Freeman

Gaines, Lee

Gallop, Sammy

Gannon, Kim

Garner, Errol

Gaskill, Clarence

Gensler, Lewis E.

George, Don

Gershwin, George

Gershwin, Ira

Gillespie, Haven

Golden, John

Goodman, Benny

Goodwin, Joe

Gordon, Irving

Gordon, Mack

Gorney, Jay

Gorrell, Stuart

Goulding, Edmund

Grainger, Porter

Grand, Murray

Grant, Ian

Gray, Chauncey

Gray, Timothy

Grever, Maria

Grey, Clifford
Green, Adolph and Betty Comden

Green, Bud

Green, Freddie

Green, Johnny

Gross, Walter

Haggart, Bob

Hamilton, Arthur

Hamilton, Nancy

Hamm, Fred

Hammerstein, Arthur

Hammerstein II, Oscar

Hampton, Lionel

Handy, W. C.
Hanighen, Bernie

Hanley, James F.

Harbach, Otto

Harburg, E. Y. (Yip)

Harling, W. Franke

Harline, Leigh

Hart, Lorenz

Henderson, Jimmy

Henderson, Ray

Herbert, Victor

Herman, Woody

Herron, Joel S.

Herzog Jr., Arthur

Heyman, Edward

Heyward, Dubose

Higginbotham, Irene

Higgins, Billy

Hilliard, Bob

Hirsch, Walter

Hodges, Johnny

Holiday, Billie

Holiner, Mann

Hollander, Frederick

Holofcener, Larry

Homer, Ben

Hopper, Hal

Howard, Bart

Hubbell, Raymond

Hupfeld, Herman


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Jacobs, Jacob

Jaffe, Moe

James, Freddy (Pseud. for Teddy Powell)

James, Harry

James, Paul

Jenkins, Gordon

Johnson, James P.

Johnston, Arthur

Johnston, Patricia

Jolson, Al

Jones, Isham

Kahal, Irving

Kahn, Gus

Kahn, Roger Wolfe

Kalmar, Bert

Keith, Marilyn
Kent, Walter

Kern, Jerome

Kisco, Charles

Kitchings, Irene

Koehler, Ted

Kosma, Joseph

Kramer, Alex

Kramer, Joan Whitney

Kurtz, Manny

Laine, Frankie

Lamare, Jules (a.k.a Charles N.

Daniels and Neil Moret)

Lane, Burt
Landesman, Fran

Latouche, John

Lawrence, Eddie

Lawrence, Jack

Layton, Turner

Lee, Peggy

Leigh, Carolyn

Leonard, Anita

Lerner, Alan Jay
Leslie, Edgar

Levant, Oscar

Lewis, Morgan

Lewis, Sam M.

Link, Harry

Lippman, Sidney

Livingston, Fud

Livingston, Jay

Livingston, Jerry

Loeb, John Jacob

Loesser, Frank

Loewe, Frederick

Lombardo, Carmen

Lowe, Ruth

Lown, Bert
Lyman, Abe


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MacDonald, Ballard

Magidson, Herb
Malneck, Matty

Mancini, Henry

Mandel, Frank

Mandel, Johnny

Mann, David

Marks, Gerald

Martin, Hugh

Maschwitz, Eric

Mayer, Henry
McCarey, Leo

McCarthy, Joseph

McCarthy, Jr., Joseph

McHugh, Jimmy

McCoy, Joe

Mellin, Robert

Mercer, Johnny

Merrill, Bob

Mertz, Paul Madeira

Meyer, Joseph

Miles, Dick

Miller, Glenn

Miller, Nathan Ned

Mills, Irving
Mitchell, Sidney D.

Moll, Billy

Monaco, Jimmy

Moret, Neil (aka Charles N. Daniels)

Morey, Larry

Moross, Jerome

Mundy, Jimmy

Muse, Clarence

Myrow, Josef

Nemo, Henry

Newley, Anthony

Nichols, Alberta

Noble, Ray

Norman, Pierre
Norton, George A.

Oakland, Ben

Overstreet, Benton W.

Palmer, Jack

Palmer, Bee

Parish, Mitchell

Parker, Dorothy

Parker, Sol

Parsons, Geoffrey

Perkins, Frank S.

Phillipe-Gérard M(ichel)

Pinkard, Maceo

Porter, Cole

Prima, Louis

Prince, Graham

Prince, Hughie


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Rainger, Ralph

Raksin, David

Ram, Buck

Ramirez, Roger (Ram)

Rand Lionel

Raye, Don

Razaf, Andy

Reardon, Jack

Redmond, John

Rene, Leon T.

Rene, Otis

Revel, Harry

Reynolds, Ellis

Reynolds, Herbert

Rhodes, Stan

Robin, Leo

Robin, Sid

Robison, Willard

Rodgers, Richard

Romberg, Sigmund

Rome, Harold

Ronell, Ann
Rose, Billy

Rose, Fred

Rose, Vincent

Ruby, Harry

Ruby, Herman

Ruskin, Harry

Russell, Bob

Sampson, Edgar

Sanicola, Henry

Santly, Lester

Savitt, Jay

Secunda, Sholom

Segal Jack
Schertzinger, Victor
Schwandt, Wilbur

Schwartz, Arthur

Scott, Bertha

Shapiro, Ted

Shavers, Charlie

Shay, Larry

Shearing, George

Sherman, Jimmy

Sherwin, Manning

Sigman, Carl

Signorelli, Frank

Silvers, Phil

Simons, Seymour

Sinatra, Frank

Sissle, Noble

Skylar, Sunny

Snyder, Ted

Sondheim, Stephen

Sour, Robert
Spence, Lew

Springer, Philip

Stept, Sam H.

Stock, Larry

Stordahl, Axel

Strachey, Jack

Strayhorn, Billy

Strouse, Charles

Styne, Jule

Suessdorf, Karl

Suesse, Dana

Sullivan, Henry

Swan, Einar Aaron

Swift, Kay

Symes, Marty


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Tauber, Doris

Teagarten, Jack

Thompson, Kay
Tobias, Charles

Tobias, Harry

Tormé, Mel

Tracey, William G.
Trent, Jo

Troop, Bobby

Turk, Roy

Turner, John

Van Heusen, Jimmy (James)

Vimmerstedt, Sadie

Waller, Fats

Warfield, Charles

Warren, Harry

Washington, Ned
Watson, Johnny

Webb, Chick

Webster, Paul Francis

Weill, Kurt

Weiss, George David

Wells, Robert

Weston, Paul

Whiting, Richard A.

Whiting, George A.

Wilder, Alec

Wiley, Lee

Wilkinson, Dudley

Williams, Clarence

Williams, Spencer

Wodehouse, P. G.

Wolf, Donald E.

Wolf, Jack

Wolf, Tommy

Wood, Guy B

Woods, Harry M.

Wright, Lawrence

Wright, Robert

Wrubel, Allie

Yellen, Jack

Youmans, Vincent

Young, Joe

Young, Trummy

Young, Victor

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